Some principles of “Baki” and ifugao custom (source: inquirer news):

Every ethnic group around the world has its own diverse cultural heritage that as an ethical structure is a way of life. In ifugao, we have the “Baki” ritual, sort of, divination, prayers, chants and offerings for the alleged gods founded in the principles of superstition, omen, presumption, assumption, supposition and practically, as primary mode, a guessing ritual. Refer above, a related ritual speaks of offering to the gods, healing rituals, divination through omens, divine intervention as sign of bestowal,rituals for protection from evil spirits and calamities. 

In other culture around the world, their ethical structure, includes things such as headhunting, human sacrifice for the gods, hanging graveyards, etc…

Example of such ethnic customs is shown below, “human sacrifice for the gods” (source: wikipedia):

Ifugaos, tell me, why is “Baki” good while “human sacrifice” is not when it is both done under the sanctity of pagan theism? Its both for gods!

Without a standard of ethics and morality, all cultural and ethnic practice is moral in the perspective of all indigenous ethnic groups concerned, thus, ethnic rituals are good to whom these are the norms, such that headhunting, child bride, Baki, genital mutilation, human sacrifice, same sex marriage, punishing rape victims, etc..,are all good to those whose ethnic group has it as its culture, thus, who can really say what is good and not?

Nobody has the authority therefore to condemn an act, ritual or custom as evil as nothing of such was founded in terms of a practice or custom as the standard “good” or standard morality!

Therefore, morality is only a term dependent on individual perspective, and nothing that really concerns a standard set of rules for everyone.

“Kanya kanya na lang imbento ng kung ano ang tama!”

Proverbs 12:15

[15]The way of a fool is right in his own eyes: but he that hearkeneth unto counsel is wise.

For us though, Christians, we believe in the standard of ethics and morality as guide and way of life, that concerns all aspect of life as in eating, what to eat or not, dressing, what we dress or not, customs, traditions and daily practices such as watching TV, movies, birthdays, holidays etc…as it say,

1 Corinthians 9:20-21

[20]And unto the Jews I became as a Jew (in practice, custom and lifestyle) that I might gain the Jews; to them that are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain them that are under the law;

[21]To them that are without law (pagans) as without law (as pagan in lifestyle and custom) being not without law to God, but under the law to Christ that I might gain them that are without law.

The standard of morality for Christians as the verse implies is the law of Christ. Though we can be Jewish or pagans in lifestyle or practice or custom but only in matters where it don’t contradicts the law of Christ. This principle is for Christians only as it say,

Romans 3:19

what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law

Thus for Christians, “Baki” as an integral part of faith is not approved as it contradicts, in every aspect all essence of morality, as specified in what we believed as the only standard of ethics and morality.

Outside Christianity, customs regarding gods and deities, done in ignorance are not authorized by god, though it is an action that is overlooked by god, as it don’t merits transgression as it is by blindness or ignorance, he don’t prescribe it as well as specified:

Acts 17:23,29-30

[23]For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar with this inscription, TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you.

[29]Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man’s device.

[30]And the times of this ignorance God winked at (overlooked); but now commandeth all men every where to repent:

As we can see, ignorant devotion to god wherein wrong practices are customary with it, is an act god overlooks bec it is by blindness, and being blind means to be sinless thus god don’t impute sin on acts done through ignorance or blindness, such as “baki”!

John 9:41

[41]Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye should have no sin: but now ye say, We see; therefore your sin remaineth. 

Thus when god said to repent from these ignorant practices after knowledge of the truth, it logically means, that these ignorant practices, rituals, customs etc… are not authorized by god as a standard practice of morality, if these contradicts the required ethics and moral code–the law of Christ!

How is “Baki” immoral, a cultural ethnical blunderous heritage?

Foremost, it contradicts moral principle. As I said, it is a guessing ritual, guessing what happens in the future, the cause of an illness, if something is good or not etc…! These are immorality as moral principle teach us on the philosophy that, an action or belief must be sanctioned from things proven and certain as it say, 

1 Thessalonians 5:21

[21]Prove all things; hold fast that which is good (or proven)

1 John 3:18-19

[18]My little children, let us not love in word, neither in tongue; but in deed and in truth.

Proverbs 19:9

[9]A false witness shall not be unpunished, and he that speaketh lies shall perish.

Proverbs 24:28

[28]Be not a witness against thy neighbour without cause; and deceive not with thy lips.

1 Corinthians 9:26

[26]I therefore so run, not as uncertainly; so fight I, not as one that beateth the air:

2 Corinthians 13:7

[7]Now I pray to God that ye do no evil; not that we should appear approved, but that ye should do that which is honest, though we be as reprobates.

Prove all things, that it must not be lies,or deception then keep those that are good, is the message! Believe only on what is proven true, no lies, meaning, everything must be certain, that is the christian principle, and that is through the process of conclusive research and factual assessment with factual evidence! Guesses through superstition and omens, and prediction elements are naturally, impractical evidences as such are not factual! The standard morality imposes practices founded on factual evidences as it implies, “prove all things, keep those that are proven true!”

It is corroborated by this:

Ecclesiastes 7:27

Behold, this have I found, saith the preacher, counting one by one, to find out the account:

To know the account, the reality of a thing, we must put all factual evidences one by one, in order to make a conclusion that such account or thing is true, thus through this process of establishing truth, we keep those things proven true as integral part of faith.

“Baki” is deficient of that characteristic, it has no proof of truthfulness, thus as moral code, it fails bec of the fact that its foundation is merely on guesses, hypothesis, and these being fundamental, are most often, lies! And deception! BAKI IS DECEPTION. It tends to certify something it is not privy of!

I know bec we sought them many times bec of my illness, schizophrenia, yet nothing of those sort were truthful as well as effective!


I dont disrespect appu butic for being mumbaki, bec his practice was rather humanitarian and love, I just don’t approve of it bec of its inherent nature, pagan!

Even in earlier times “baki”, omens,superstition was prohibited.

Deuteronomy 18:10-12

[10]There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch,

[11]Or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer.

[12]For all that do these things are an abomination unto the LORD: and because of these abominations the LORD thy God doth drive them out from before thee.

Likewise, it incorporates offerings to deities, which is not authorized as it say,

Matthew 9:13

I will have mercy, and not sacrifice!

Hosea 6:6

[6]For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings (in your ignorance)!

These as compulsory element as ethical standard supersedes any custom or culture that is not in accordance to its principle, thus logically putting “baki” as pagan, ignorant and illegitimate as by the necessity of being outside the required moral code.

What guarantee do we have that the biblical scripture is the standard moral code?

It is, simply bec, there is factual evidence of the authenticity of god and truthfulness of scriptures, such as factual confirmation of biblical science and prophecies, that predates its discoveries, a sign of a supernatural and credible witness, we revere as god! Therefore, the bible speaks the truth, the biblical scripture is the “only” standard of morality. 

1 Corinthians 4:6

[6]And these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and to Apollos for your sakes; that ye might learn in us not to think above that which is written, that no one of you be puffed up for one against another.

Read here the valid tangible proof why biblical scriptures are truly from god, why it is truthful that inevitably makes it the standard moral code: CLICK ME!

Lastly, i want to ask again, why is “baki” good and “human sacrifice” is not? By what standard of morality tells you that “human sacrifice” as offering to god, immoral and “baki” is not?



  1. Leave the Mumbaki alone, if you do not believe in the baki, so be it, but you have no business declaring it as an ethnic blunder, lest all cultural practices of all ethnic groups that do not suit your perspective of what is moral are all considered a blunder. I am an Ifugao and have thrived all along because of the highly ethical principles the Baki instilled upon me by my mumbaki grandfather. And mind you, Baki is done to preserve life, while sacrificing life itself is immoral since it is only the creator who has the authority to extinguish life.


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