Note: my answers in between paragraphs in parenthesis.
Sam shamoun said: (in this site)
I will cite verses where the word heis is used in reference to a particular individual that is described as carrying out a specific function or possessing a certain name or quality, and then quote passages where others are said to also perform that same task or described as having that same title or characteristic.
(Biblically, one (heis) is an ascription to a description which must to be interpreted not in light of any insufficient context but must be referred to in terms of relative reality i.e context and definition. Obviously sam has intuition to utilize Greek similar terms but lacks propensity to explore the vast expanse of context that somehow limited his grasp of reality! Let me show you…ILL SHOW FIRST INITIAL COMMENTS, afterwards, ill provide evidences! Bear with it.)
God Alone Is Good
“As he was setting out on a journey, a man ran up, knelt down before him, and asked him, ‘Good teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life? Jesus answered him, ‘Why do you call me good? No one is good but God alone (oudeis agathos, ei me heis, ho Theos).” Mark 10:17-18
“Now there was a man named Joseph, from the Jewish town of Arimathea. He was a member of the council, a good (agathos) and righteous man,” Luke 23:50 ESV
“The news about them reached the ears of the church in Jerusalem, and they sent Barnabas [to go] to Antioch. When he arrived and saw the grace of God, he rejoiced and encouraged them all to remain faithful to the Lord in firmness of heart, for he was a good (agathos) man, filled with the holy Spirit and faith. And a large number of people was added to the Lord.” Acts 11:22-24
(True. God (jesus and the father) is good. In what terms? In terms of integrity! The integral structure of goodness, that is, the fulness of it! Others were good in partial terms.)
God Alone Is Holy
“Who will not fear you, Lord, or glorify your name? For you alone are holy (hoti monos hosios). All the nations will come and worship before you, for your righteous acts have been revealed.” Revelation 15:4
“Those priests were many because they were prevented by death from remaining in office, but he, because he remains forever, has a priesthood that does not pass away. Therefore, he is always able to save those who approach God through him, since he lives forever to make intercession for them. It was fitting that we should have such a high priest: holy (hosios), innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners, higher than the heavens.” Hebrews 7:23-26
(Again! God alone is holy in terms of its integral structure. Man can be holy, but in terms of partial holiness, as the image of god.)
Even though the verse employs monos instead of heis, it is still relevant nonetheless since it shows the flexibility in which these terms are used in the God-breathed Scriptures.
“… and one Lord (heis Kyrios), Jesus Christ, through whom all things are and through whom we exist.” 1 Corinthians 8:6b
“one Lord (ho Kyrios), one faith, one baptism;” Ephesians 4:5
“With it we bless the Lord and Father (ton Kyrion kai Patera), and with it we curse human beings who are made in the likeness of God.” James 3:9
“Worthy are you, Lord our God (ho Kyrios kai Theos hemon), to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things; because of your will they came to be and were created.” Revelation 4:11
“Slaves, obey your human masters (kata sarka kyriois) in everything, not only when being watched, as currying favor, but in simplicity of heart, fearing the Lord (ton Kyrion). Whatever you do, do from the heart, as for the Lord (to Kyrio) and not for others, knowing that you will receive from the Lord (apo Kyriou) the due payment of the inheritance; be slaves of the Lord Christ (to Kyrio Christo). For the wrongdoer will receive recompense for the wrong he committed, and there is no partiality. Masters (Hoi kyrioi), treat your slaves justly and fairly, realizing that you too have a Master (Kyrion) in heaven.” Colossians 3:22-4:1
(One lord through whom all things are is jesus alone. God alone is the lord from whom are all things. One is a tool (through) the other is the source (from) and yet both are one lord in the church. Lord here speaks of spiritual lord reflected through divine worship, as authority over all things. Human masters (lord) are lords in terms of carnality.
Let me expound.
For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ.
The only lord god and our lord Jesus Christ. It speaks of god and jesus as one and only lord. In what terms?
I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service.
In terms of slavery, and bondage, and the slave-master relation!
1 Corinthians 7:22
For he that is called in the Lord, being a servant, is the Lord’s freeman: likewise also he that is called, being free, is Christ’s doulos (slave).
For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I (jesus) am among you as he that serveth.
Thus, lord or master in reference to humans and god, speaks of two different meaning, or, semblance! as their slave-master relation is different.Human as masters are in terms of carnality. Jesus as master is on the divine aspect.
“As for you, do not be called ‘Rabbi.’ You have but one teacher (heis gar estin hymon ho didaskalos), and you are all brothers.” Matthew 23:8
“You call me ‘Teacher’ and ‘Lord (Ho Didaskalos kai ho Kyrios),’ and rightly so, for that is what I am. Now that I, your Lord and Teacher (ho Kyrios kai ho Didaskalos), have washed your feet, you also should wash one another’s feet.” John 13:13-14 NIV
“Some people God has designated in the church to be, first, apostles; second, prophets; third, teachers (didaskalous); then, mighty deeds; then, gifts of healing, assistance, administration, and varieties of tongues. Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers (didaskaloi)? Do all work mighty deeds? Do all have gifts of healing? Do all speak in tongues? Do all interpret? Strive eagerly for the greatest spiritual gifts. But I shall show you a still more excellent way.” 1 Corinthians 12:28-31
(One teacher is mistranslation bec as you can see, many teachers were set up in the church. Rabbi in Strong’s numbers is rhabbi which means master, and in the church, Christ is the one master. Though it say,
My brethren, be not many didaskalos (teachers) knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation.
it doesn’t imply, teachers are masters bec explicitly, there is one master, and without clarificatory supplement to make them synonyms, by context, then it remains that one master means, a single one! How about god almighty is he not our master?
He is! As in nature and essence, god and jesus are inseperably one!
John 10:30 I AND MY FATHER ARE ONE!
in what way they are one?
Jesus said, the father is in me and i am in the father!
That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me.
It means, they share one in characteristics and attributes as much as nature, as it further say,
Jesus was in the shape (nature) of god and equal with god.
Who, being in the morphe (shape, nature) of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God:
Thus equally, they are one, in nature or shape (spirit shape) and attribute!
and both are masters, one master, as jesus is described above and god almighty described below,
2 Timothy 2:21
If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, and meet for the master’s use, and prepared unto every good work.
Who is the master of the house that use vessels of his house?
Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus?
Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?
Now, clearly, both jesus and god are one master bec there could not be two master.
No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other.
Logically, there is only one master, jesus and god, whereas there are many didaskalos or teachers in the church.)
“I am the good shepherd, and I know mine and mine know me, just as the Father knows me and I know the Father; and I will lay down my life for the sheep. I have other sheep that do not belong to this fold. These also I must lead, and they will hear my voice, and there will be one flock (mia poimne), one shepherd (heis poimen).” John 10:14-16 – cf. 1 Peter 2:25; Hebrews 13:20
“Keep watch over yourselves and all the flock of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers. Be shepherds (poimainein) of the church of God, which he bough with his own blood.” Acts 20:28 New International Version (NIV)
“And he gave the apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the shepherds and teachers (poimenas kai didaskalous), to equip the saints for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ, until we all attain to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ, so that we may no longer be children, tossed to and fro by the waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by human cunning, by craftiness in deceitful schemes. Rather, speaking the truth in love, we are to grow up in every way into him who is the head, into Christ, from whom the whole body, joined and held together by every joint with which it is equipped, when each part is working properly, makes the body grow so that it builds itself up in love.” Ephesians 4:11-16 English Standard Version (ESV)
“To the elders among you, I appeal as a fellow elder and a witness of Christ’s sufferings who also will share in the glory to be revealed: Be shepherds (poimanate) of God’s flock that is under your care, watching over them—not because you must, but because you are willing, as God wants you to be; not pursuing dishonest gain, but eager to serve; not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock. And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that will never fade away.” 1 Peter 5:1-4 NIV
(One shepherd only, as title and function. Function in the sense of being, universal force within the church. Church leaders are not shepherds in that sense bec in terms of what it means by one shepherd, they are not that but only practicing the partial function of the one true shepherd, christ.
My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:
And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.
Contextual meaning of one shepherd is to be the working force, the voice that is distinct, for “ALL” sheep’s to hear thereby it, follow, and by being shepherd gives life to his sheep.
The one shepherd speaks through church leaders being themselves shepherds but in the context of partial shepherding. THEY DONT BRING ALL SHEEP INSIDE!
2 Corinthians 13:3
Since ye seek a proof of Christ speaking in me, which to you-ward is not weak, but is mighty in you.
That as partial function, as derived from how the one Shepherd is in its integity, is how church leaders become shepherds, as the conduit for the calling of the one shepherd to “ALL” his sheep.
Therefore, one shepherd as intended, is in matters regarding integrity, which church leaders as shepherds have lack, meaning, there is only one shepherd in terms of integral function, to bring all sheep in the fold, thus indeed, there is one that qualifies by that parameter.)
“There is one lawgiver and judge (heis estin [ho] nomothetes kai krites) who is able to save or to destroy. Who then are you to judge your neighbor?” James 4:12
“Nor does the Father judge anyone, but he has given all judgment to his Son… And he gave him power to exercise judgment, because he is the Son of Man.” John 5:22, 27
“He commissioned us to preach to the people and testify that he is the one appointed by God as judge of the living and the dead.” Acts 10:42 – cf. 17:30-31
“I charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and by HIS appearing and HIS kingly power… From now on the crown of righteousness awaits me, which the Lord, the just judge, will award to me on that day, and not only to me, but to all who have longed for HIS appearance… The Lord will rescue me from every evil threat and will bring me safe to HIS heavenly kingdom. To HIM be glory forever and ever. Amen.” 2 Timothy 4:1, 8, 18 – cf. Matthew 16:27; 25:31-46; 1 Corinthians 4:2-5; 1 Corinthians 4:3-5
“Now if you invoke as Father him who judges impartially according to each one’s works, conduct yourselves with reverence during the time of your sojourning,” 1 Peter 1:17
“Jesus said to them, ‘Amen, I say to you that you who have followed me, in the new age, when the Son of Man is seated on his throne of glory, will yourselves sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” Matthew 19:28
“How can any one of you with a case against another dare to bring it to the unjust for judgment instead of to the holy ones? Do you not know that the holy ones will judge the world? If the world is to be judged by you, are you unqualified for the lowest law courts? Do you not know that we will judge angels? Then why not everyday matters?” 1 Corinthians 6:1-3
“Then I saw thrones; those who sat on them were entrusted with judgment. I also saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their witness to Jesus and for the word of God, and who had not worshiped the beast or its image nor had accepted its mark on their foreheads or hands. They came to life and they reigned with Christ for a thousand years. The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were over. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is the one who shares in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over these; they will be priests of God and of Christ, and they will reign with him for [the] thousand years.” Revelation 20:4-6
(ONE JUDGE as with the others you presented as one (heis) contextually, speaks of it in terms of being the sole verdict-maker, and not as designation in terms of secondary function, the relay of verdict!
What does one judge means?
It means, the source of verdict!
1 Chronicles 29:14
But who am I, and what is my people, that we should be able to offer so willingly after this sort? for all things come of thee, and of thine own have we given thee.
All things come from god including verdict.
Bec only him knows the heart of men and nothing hid from him.
1 Kings 8:39
Then hear thou in heaven thy dwelling place, and forgive, and do, and give to every man according to his ways, whose heart thou knowest; (for thou, even thou only, knowest the hearts of all the children of men;)
Can any hide himself in secret places that I shall not see him? saith the LORD. Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the LORD.
God can see the future,as implied in many verses, including the heart, and no secret is hid from him thus logically, he is the only reliable source of judicial verdict in judgment day. Though jesus, can read the heart of all men, he cannot see the future as stated, “he do not know the hour of his return!”, thus he is not a credible judge in terms of giving verdict, as evidently, god as the only qualified verdict-giver, has wrote significant records of deeds in the book of life, as he foreseen the future which jesus lacking the foreseeing ability cannot, as implied,
And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.
whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world,
And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.
Therefore, even before man existed, the tallies of man’s deeds were already written for it to be known who would be saved or not.
Therefore, the verdict was already made before mankind existed and it could only be by the one judge who could see the future. Jesus cannot see the future nor anyone could, thus they being commisioned judges, simply means, judges in terms of pronouncing god’s verdict and not the function as characteristic of the integral one judge, who is a judge by virtue of being the source of the verdict, thus saying, one judge, implies an exclusive title, for god only. God relinquish participation in judgment day, as implied is mere observer, as the commissioned judges do the actual serving of verdict he beforehand wrote in the book of life, as implied,
“Nor does the Father judge anyone, but he has given all judgment to his Son…”
It means, he won’t participate in the judgment process and activities during those times, but preferring to be the one judge as characterized by being the verdict-maker!
Thus, judge, per se in its inherent meaning, speaks of anyone in its category but saying, one judge, cannot qualify anyone except god almighty bec he is the only verdict-maker!)
“Call no one on earth your father; you have but one Father in heaven (heis gar estin hymon ho Pater, ho ouranios).” Matthew 23:9
“For this reason, it depends on faith, so that it may be a gift, and the promise may be guaranteed to all his descendants, not to those who only adhere to the law but to those who follow the faith of Abraham, who is the father of all of us,” Romans 4:17
“I am writing you this not to shame you, but to admonish you as my beloved children. Even if you should have countless guides to Christ, yet you do not have many fathers, for I became your father in Christ Jesus through the gospel.” 1 Corinthians 4:14-15
“Children, obey your parents [in the Lord], for this is right. Honor your father and mother. This is the first commandment with a promise, ‘that it may go well with you and that you may have a long life on earth.’” Ephesians 6:1-3
This last case is rather interesting:
“They answered and said to him, ‘Our father is Abraham.’ Jesus said to them, ‘If you were Abraham’s children, you would be doing the works of Abraham. But now you are trying to kill me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God; Abraham did not do this. You are doing the works of your father!” [So] they said to him, ‘We are not illegitimate. We have one Father, God (hena Patera echomen, ton Theon).’” John 8:39-
The Jews tell Jesus that they have one Father, namely God, right after claiming that Abraham was their father!
(In context, Abraham is our father, yet in terms of affiliation, with christ, father in the sense of being the promised source, of christianity through isaac, he is not the one father as attributes of one god (jesus and god) the spiritual father of our faith.
Abraham as father!
Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy (abraham) seed be called.
And if ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise.
Christians are Abraham’s seed, as spiritual posterity through Isaac. Being that, Abraham is the father of Christianity, father in the sense that, he is the father of many nations.
(As it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations,) before him whom he believed, even God, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things which be not as though they were.
Who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations, according to that which was spoken, So shall thy seed be.
That seed, the many nations, are not the physical descendants as many of them are disowned as children.
Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy (abraham) seed be called.
Abraham, who is the father of all of us,” Romans 4:17
Thus saying, he is the father of many nations speaks of his fatherhood to christians, which fatherhood, is in terms of designation, by gods promise, which fatherhood is unlike the fatherhood of the “one father” spoken of. Meaning, one father speaks of the fatherhood of god and jesus, being, lifegivers, thereby it, we are born.
And I (jesus) give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.
1 John 5:11
And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son.
1 John 3:9
Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God.
In that aspect, we must not call any man father in the religious aspect, as our spiritual father, whereas, our fathers in the flesh are simply, our physical fathers, thus permitted to call them in that aspect, as our biological or adoptive fathers. Likewise, abraham as father of christians is logically, a father as designated recognition, by the fact, that it was through him, that christ emanated from through isaac, which opens the way for christianity.
“Who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations, according to that which was spoken, So shall thy seed be.”
Paul as our spiritual father is mistranslation, he only function as father but not father in title as we dont call any man our religious father!)
Parents in the lord, is in terms, of human family, but they are not to be called “father” in the essence, of a religious father. They are simply as human fathers adopting us like biological children. There is only one religious, that is, spiritual father! as clearly stated, there is one father!
With the foregoing in perspective, it is clear that heis does not always exclude other individuals from sharing in the characteristics and/or functions assigned to a specific person.
(By context, when it say, one in reference to jesus and god, such as the one good, one holy, one lord, one shepherd, one father, it speaks of their integral divine nature, thus in that aspect of integrity, there is only a single good, and single holy, single shepherd, single father, such that, good and holy people are not qualified for that one good, one holy attribute as we, being naturally not divine, are partially good, holy, etc…being only partakers of the divine nature.
2 Peter 1:4
Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.
But we could have the fullness of god.
And to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God.
We could be perfect as god.
Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.
But being only partakers of the divine nature, we could be perfect, having fullness of god, in terms of the intended meaning of perfection and fullness of god, as categorized by god, and it doesn’t mean, exactly as god, bec we are only partakers of the divine nature,
So when it say, god is the only good and only holy, it implies the integral goodness and holiness and not the portion of it we partake that qualifies us as good and holy. It means in the integrity of goodness and holiness, one is good and holy, and we are not that!)
As we have seen, it can and often does convey the sense of first, primary, but not the only one in the sense of excluding anything or anyone else from possessing those particular qualities or roles assigned to a specific individual. As such, citing a text where the Lord Jesus is said to be the one mediator doesn’t in and of itself exclude others from participating in Christ’s mediation. In fact, in the next part of our discussionwe will see how born again believers are called to participate in Christ’s priestly work, and are therefore expected to pray and make intercession for the salvation of all mankind, which is precisely what a mediator does.
(There is only one mediator in terms of how it was intended! Even for example, that there are other mediator/intercessor, they are not the one mediator in terms of how one mediator was intended to mean.
One mediator, is exclusive title for someone functioning the intended characteristic of the one mediator.
That is, to reconcile, israel and gentiles, “ fully“, in one body to god!
For he is our peace, who hath made both (gentiles and israel) one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us;
Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace;
And that he might reconcile both (Israel and gentiles) unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby:
And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh.
For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father
That is the characteristic of the one mediator, only him could do that, thus any less mediator don’t qualify as one mediator.
As we can see through this presentation, the term in question that is one (heis) either mean, a single entity or collective one i.e jesus and god!).
CONCLUSIVELY, Sam saying, heis (one) doesn’t exclude others who shares in the characteristics and functions assigned to other persons is utterly, partial self interpretation, as the functions/characteristics assigned to those as termed in context of heis (one) is unique and distinct to them such that it qualifies them as the single titleholder! As clearly presented above!